Spotlight on Science: Owner Relationship Perceptions and the Consequences for Cats

iCatCare Feline Wellbeing Panel (FWP) member Esther Bouma shares with us her ideas on her newest printed analysis on proprietor relationship perceptions and the results for cats.  

Why did you wish to examine the notion of the human-animal bond?  

Many research have examined the advantages of animals for people, however there was a lot much less examine on how dwelling with folks advantages companion animals. Companion animals can operate in roles much like people, resembling suppliers of social assist and companionship or objects to fulfil our human must nurture and care. The overarching objective of our analysis is to check how social roles of companion animals are intertwined with house owners’ perceptions of each the connection in addition to the animal itself, and the way this influences the wellbeing of the animal.  

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Which facets of the cats’ dwelling surroundings had been studied? 

We examined facets that had been associated to feline welfare and had been more likely to differ relying on the proprietor’s relationship notion – such perceptions had been categorised as ‘member of the family’, ‘greatest buddy’, ‘little one’ or ‘pet animal’.

We examined out of doors entry, entry to the bed room, and care throughout proprietor absence. Access to the outside has each helpful results (because it reduces boredom, frustration and weight problems) and dangers (resembling accidents, poisoning and infectious ailments). In the Netherlands it is not uncommon for cats to have (restricted) out of doors entry. Access to the bed room can be widespread as a earlier examine confirmed that two-thirds of pet cats are allowed of their proprietor’s bed room. Consistent entry to the bed room supplies the cat with a repeatedly accessible place for a quiet nap or a secure hideout. In the Netherlands, most house owners depart their cats within the care of pals and neighbours with variable high quality of care. Some house owners rent knowledgeable cat sitter or convey their cat to a boarding facility. Although some cats don’t appear to thoughts staying in an unfamiliar surroundings, most cats present much less stress associated behaviours in their very own territory.

We formulated a number of hypotheses for every of the 4 relationship descriptions in relation to the aforementioned markers of the dwelling surroundings which will be discovered within the Introductory part of our paper.  

Can you inform us one thing about your strategies? 

Participants crammed out an internet questionnaire. If individuals owned multiple cat, they had been requested to maintain one particular cat in thoughts when answering the questions. A big cross-sectional pattern of 1,859 Dutch cat house owners was introduced with 4 relationship descriptions: ‘pet animal’, ‘member of the family’, ‘little one’ and ‘greatest buddy’ (of which the final three are thought of anthropomorphic perceptions) and requested to decide on which description suits greatest. Owners may additionally select the choice ‘It is troublesome to explain the connection with my cat’.

First, we examined the affect of things associated to the proprietor (resembling social dwelling surroundings, age, gender, schooling) the cat (resembling being a pedigree, being the proprietor’s first cat, and owner-directed behaviours), and the proprietor’s perceptions of their cat (for instance associated to assist, empathy, loyalty and dependency) on the house owners’ alternative of a selected relationship description. Then we examined if the dwelling surroundings of the cats differed between the 4 relationships descriptions. 

How did Dutch cat house owners understand the connection with their cat? 

In our pattern of 1,859 cat house owners, over half see their cat as a part of their household (n=943, 52%) and greater than 1 / 4 as their little one (n=493, 27%). Fewer house owners see their cat as a pet animal (n=258, 14%) and the bottom proportion sees their cat as their greatest buddy (n=109, 7%).  

Which cat-and-owner components influenced relationship notion? 

Owner’s age, presence of different adults within the family, the cat being a pedigree and house owners’ settlement with their cat’s equality to people, dependency on them, and provision of social assist had been considerably associated to relationship notion.

Owners’ gender, academic stage, cat-related occupation or settlement with statements in regards to the cat’s companionship, empathy and loyalty, being the house owners first cat, length of possession, the cat’s gender, and behavior in the direction of the proprietor weren’t of affect.   

How did the dwelling surroundings of cats differ? 

Cats of householders who see them as a baby or greatest buddy are allowed considerably extra usually of their house owners’ bed room. Although sleeping on the mattress with the proprietor can be barely extra prevalent in these teams, the general group distinction was not statistically vital after correction for a number of testing.

Outdoor entry is commonest in cats which might be seen by their house owners as pet animals or relations. Cats within the pet animal group are the least restricted of their whereabouts. Most have a cat flap that’s open always. Cats in the very best buddy or little one group that do have entry to the outside usually don’t have any management over time and length and are sometimes solely allowed in a fenced backyard or catio. When away for a number of days, house owners within the pet animal group depart their cat extra usually within the care of pals or neighbours. Owners within the little one and buddy group extra usually indicated that they didn’t depart the home for a number of days. Lastly, house owners within the little one group have extra cats. Cats of householders who see them as a pet animal or greatest buddy have the very best probability of being the one cat within the family. 

Do house owners who see their cats as pet animals anthropomorphise their cat much less? 

Our findings counsel that house owners who describe the connection with their cats in an intimate social human function resembling a baby or greatest buddy anthropomorphize their cats to a better extent than house owners who see them as pet cats. Owners within the pet animal group agreed the least with statements about their cat being supportive, empathic, equal to people, loyal and depending on the proprietor for love and care, whereas house owners in the very best buddy and little one group agreed probably the most. Owners who describe the connection with their cat as being much like a baby, show behaviours much like human dad and mom in the direction of their youngsters; particularly (over)safety and provision of (unique) care. 

How can anthropomorphic perceptions be detrimental to feline welfare? 

Owners who understand their cat as a small human would possibly misread their (delicate) behaviours or exaggerate their social talents. Attribution of social talents resembling ‘perceptive’, ‘empathetic’ and ‘thoughtful’ makes it attainable for animals to be a supply of assist. But as descendants of solitary hunters, the social abilities of cats could be much less developed than in group-living animals resembling people and canines (for whom social abilities are vital for survival). Looking at a cat from a human perspective may end up in a miss-match between the necessity of the proprietor and the necessity of the cat.

For instance, people show their affection by hugging and cuddling however being held tight is for (most) cats not nice. And though many cats get pleasure from petting, the length and physique elements which might be touched are sometimes not suitable between the choice of cat and proprietor. Lastly, whereas house owners (with the very best intentions) wish to defend their cats from the hazards of the surface world, they could deprive their cat from their pure drive to discover and play/hunt. The welfare of indoor cats could be compromised when the dwelling surroundings is suboptimal (small, a number of cats, restricted sources and absence of environmental enrichment resembling meals puzzles or (scented) toys).  

Which cat has the ‘greatest cat life’? 

That is troublesome to reply as we didn’t look at the environments via a qualitative guidelines or residence observations. We see that probably the most pronounced variations are between the pet animal group and the three ‘anthropomorphic’ perceptions. Cats within the pet animal group have much less entry to the bed room however they usually have unrestricted entry to the outside. About one fifth of householders from the very best buddy and little one group don’t depart the home for a number of days/night time which can or is probably not helpful for the cats, relying on how the cat interacts with them and the way they understand their proprietor. As descendants from solitary animals, cats in the very best buddy and pet animal group have the very best probability that they don’t should share their family with different cats whereas cats of householders who see them as youngsters usually (should) share their (indoor) surroundings with different cats.  

Why are the outcomes attention-grabbing for house owners? 

We hope that our outcomes make house owners extra acutely aware about their very own (social) wants and the way these affect the dwelling surroundings and wellbeing of their cats. Owners who wish to defend their cats from outdoors risks must be conscious that the welfare of their cats could be compromised when the indoor surroundings is suboptimal. Moreover, though domesticated cats can dwell in shut proximity to one another, the presence of different cats can both be nice or hectic, relying on the variety of cats, the dimensions of the dwelling space, entry to sources and the standard of the relationships between the cats.   

Why are our outcomes attention-grabbing for cat professionals? 

Recognising house owners’ vocabulary once they talk about their cat would possibly reveal the cats’ social significance for the proprietor. Recognising the cats’ social function would possibly stimulate efficient communication with house owners. Our outcomes counsel that house owners who see their cats as greatest pals or youngsters would possibly attribute biologically invalid talents to their cats. Providing details about the pure behaviour and welfare wants of cats would possibly profit feline welfare.


 To assist all cat carers perceive extra about cats and what retains them bodily wholesome and mentally nicely, we now have an enormous recommendation part on our web site overlaying an intensive vary of subjects from normal care to cat well being, security, dealing with and drawback behaviours, to call only a few, go to https://icatcare.org/advice/  

Bouma EMC, Reijgwart ML, Dijkstra A. 2021. Family Member, Best Friend, Child or ‘Just’ a Pet, Owners’ Relationship Perceptions and Consequences for Their Cats. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 193. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010193 

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sarahicatcare

I’m the feline behaviour specialist at feline charity ‘International Cat Care’. We are about participating, educating and empowering folks all through the world to enhance the well being and welfare of cats by sharing recommendation, coaching and fervour.

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