Indoors or Outdoors? International Owner Demographics and Decisions on the Lifestyle of Pet Cats

Indoors or Outdoors? International Owner Demographics and Decisions on the Lifestyle of Pet Cats

This article first appeared on iCatCare here

Following on from a previous month’s Spotlight on Science, we proceed with the theme of professionals and cons of preserving pet cats indoor-only versus giving them out of doors entry.

Dr Luciana Assis and Feline Wellbeing Panel Member Professor Daniel Mills, each from the University of Lincoln, UK, teamed up with UK cat containment firm ProtectaPet® to analyze what the consequences of introducing three kinds of out of doors containment methods have been on cat welfare and proprietor issues utilizing a brand new feline welfare evaluation device.

iCatCare’s Head of Cat Advocacy, Sarah Ellis chatted to Luciana Assis to delve slightly deeper into the analysis.

What was your inspiration for the research?

The difficulty of permitting cats open air is a posh debate. Some argue it’s important that cats exit for his or her well-being (being an indoor solely cat has been proven to be related to a spread of issues a few of which could relate to emphasize however others to environmental contaminants). However, we all know that tens of hundreds of cats are killed and tons of of hundreds extra injured on the roads every year within the UK alone. Using a fencing answer equivalent to that supplied by ProtectaPet®, appeared like a superb answer, however we didn’t know whether or not this is perhaps irritating for cats, particularly these used to wandering past their backyard.  Also, most homeowners’ gardens are a lot smaller than a typical cat territory, so even for cats that had been indoors solely, there could possibly be points. The downside was we merely had no information on this. ProtectaPet® have been fascinated by this, and the Government provided funding to assist academia work with enterprise, so there was an incredible alternative for us to discover these points.

What was the purpose of the research?

Our purpose was to analyze whether or not putting in a managed out of doors surroundings would have an effect on both or each the cats’ welfare and their caregivers’ issues about permitting them to go exterior. In order to do that, we in contrast the extent of welfare of cats and the way involved their homeowners have been earlier than and after putting in a barrier system that permits managed out of doors entry, produced by ProtectaPet®.

How did you conduct your research?

We surveyed cat homeowners that have been clients of ProtectaPet® barrier methods about their opinions on caring for cats and their cats’ lives. We additionally needed to learn about how a lot homeowners have been involved about totally different elements of permitting their cats to go exterior with out supervision earlier than and after set up, and whether or not there have been modifications in particular behaviours of their cats after the set up. We obtained an incredible response with over 400 respondents which we analysed intimately. Importantly, we in contrast cats earlier than and after set up of ProtectaPet® options, that originally had unrestricted entry, restricted entry, or no entry to the outside in any respect.

Three kinds of ProtectaPet have been reported within the research; 1. Cat Fence Barrier, 2. Catio and three, Cat Enclosure – are you able to describe the distinction between these merchandise?

The Cat Fence Barrier entails attaching a bracket to an current fence or wall – often at intervals of 2m – related with mesh. The bracket is angled inwards so {that a} cat is prevented from climbing or leaping over the fence.

The freestanding Cat Enclosure is used the place there isn’t any pre-existing fence or wall, so posts with brackets hooked up to the highest are put in, related by mesh.

The Catio (cat-patio) is a cuboid construction with a mesh roof so it’s completely enclosed. Everything is made with a particular mesh so each air and solar can naturally circulate inside.

What have been your most important findings?

Our most important findings have been:

  • Our respondents have been consultant of the cat homeowners within the UK in that almost all of cats’ homeowners dwell in an city surroundings with small gardens, have a number of cats, have had a cat concerned in a street visitors accident, and agree that cats who’ve entry to open air have a greater high quality of life.
  • Before the set up: nearly half of the cats both didn’t have entry to the outside in any respect (we have no idea if they’d ever had out of doors entry previous to this ‘earlier than’ interval) or have been open air lower than 1h per day. After the set up: all cats had out of doors entry with over 98% of cats staying exterior greater than 1h per day.
  • The frequency of visits of different cats of their gardens was considerably decreased, which can have led to cats feeling safer in their very own backyard (e.g. with out preventing with different cats, and many others).
  • The homeowners’ degree of concern a couple of vary of issues related to their cats having unrestricted entry to the surface equivalent to damage within the street and getting misplaced have been additionally considerably decreased.
  • We used 4 welfare subscales that measured positivity (how relaxed cats have been across the house and prepared to play with homeowners), upkeep behaviours (i.e. urge for food, thirst, sleeping and searching), well being points and fearfulness, and all confirmed important enhancements after set up of the obstacles.
  • The longer cats spent open air after the set up the higher welfare they appeared to have.
  • Overall, set up was related to constructive modifications in each proprietor and cat high quality of life, which appears to be significantly related to an elevated sense of safety.

Was there something that shocked you?

The proven fact that cats who used to have unrestricted entry to open air additionally confirmed some enchancment as a substitute of lower of their welfare was stunning, since usually individuals consider proscribing freedom in cats is detrimental to their welfare. This means that having all of the house accessible is much less constructive for cats than having a restricted house however protected from intruders (e.g. different cats, foxes, and many others), which could stem from cats pure territoriality, during which cats continually attempt to hold intruders out of their territory.

Do you’ve gotten comparability information of cats who at the moment had unrestricted entry open air to cats that now are inside a containment system? I ponder as a result of so many cats (almost half) didn’t have entry to the outside past 1 hour a day. Could the impact you see be associated to out of doors entry moderately than contained out of doors entry? It can be good to see the consequences in your welfare sub-scales when evaluating the subpopulation that did have out of doors entry earlier than set up of the containment system to the subpopulation that didn’t.

Unfortunately, we didn’t have a management group, so we don’t have this information however it might be an necessary function for additional analysis. 

However, wdo have a comparability between subpopulations in keeping with their earlier entry to open air (earlier than set up). On common, cats with unrestricted entry to open air confirmed an enchancment within the Health Issues and Positivity sub-scales when in comparison with each restricted and no entry. However, they did present a lower on the Maintenance sub-score when in comparison with the opposite two teams and no change on the Fearfulness sub-score 

There have been particular person variations as can at all times be anticipated. For instance, there have been circumstances the place the containment confirmed a unfavorable impact on welfare scores, nonetheless these circumstances have been uncommon. For us, necessary additional analysis would subsequently be to determine what elements may predict such a outcome and what elements may stop/alleviate it, for instance, making modifications to the surroundings throughout the contained space.

Why do you suppose there was a change in Maintenance rating? Could it’s associated to the searching side of this sub-scale, for instance, their searching alternative was decreased when in a barrier system? 

I do consider the searching could have been performed an enormous half on it. Another possibility could possibly be that due to the attainable decreased exercise they wanted much less meals and water (i.e. urge for food and thirst), which could possibly be interpreted both as an answer or an issue relying on the kinds of exercise they have been beforehand concerned in pre-installation. For instance, a discount in urge for food and thirst on account of much less exercise spent in territorial disputes and preventing with different cats may very well be welfare enhancing versus a discount in thirst and urge for food on account of much less normal bodily exercise. It would undoubtedly be worthy to analyze this additional and attempt to perceive the underlying causes of every change for every group and particular person

What can be your high ideas from the outcomes of your research and who would they be for?

For cat homeowners I’d say that an important level is said to having a sensible various for ‘unsupervised entry to open air’ and ‘residing strictly indoors’ that hold a top quality of life for companion cats and in addition protects the wildlife. In this research, even cats that used to have unsupervised entry exterior of their properties appeared to indicate indicators of improved welfare with a managed out of doors surroundings. Therefore, you now have a 3rd possibility which might additionally shield the wildlife.

Cats differ from one another when it comes to their personalities and even their wants. When contemplating altering their residing areas (both by reducing for cats that have been roaming freely or rising it for cats that have been by no means allowed exterior), a cats individuality have to be thought-about in order that diversifications promote constructive welfare moderately than impacting negatively on the cat. We actually want extra analysis on this subject to grasp what might be performed for particular person cats with differing wants and what can be the very best administration for every cat.

Where do you hope the outcomes of this research take you subsequent?

I hope that after these thrilling outcomes we can examine additional the long-term influence of those methods and the way we will individualise the contained space for every cat with a purpose to be certain that they’re all joyful and wholesome. Hence, a follow-up research can be to have a look at the welfare scores of those similar cats after 6 and 12 months to see whether or not these advantages are sustained and during which means. It can be significantly necessary to grasp the wants of these cats that didn’t present an enchancment in welfare and adapt every surroundings in keeping with their wants. These additional research would permit us to make sure a excessive welfare customary of all cats that dwell in the sort of managed surroundings.

Finally, a query we wish to ask everybody we interview for Spotlight on Science, what’s your favorite factor about iCatCare?

I actually admire the work that iCatCare does with a purpose to enhance cats’ welfare around the globe, particularly all the trouble to extend individuals’s understanding of cats which is at all times based mostly on analysis. For each medical and behavioural areas, finding out and gathering proof of the trigger, signs and remedy are important. Of course, skilled expertise is necessary, however it can’t be the one info we now have to make selections that can have an effect on different residing beings. That is why iCatCare has been revolutionising the sector and having nice influence on how cats are higher handled.


An enormous thanks to Luciana and the group for sharing their analysis. I actually can be actually to additionally see the analysis widened out to incorporate cats and containment methods in different international locations the place dangers related to being open air differ, eg, in some international locations there may be extra of a threat from predators. You can discover out slightly bit extra about these concerned within the research under.

Luciana: I’m initially from Brazil the place I did my vet diploma, residence, and masters. In 2014, I got here to the University of Lincoln, UK to analysis canine behaviour and welfare. As you possibly can see my analysis has additionally branched into cats! I really like animals normally, particularly canine and cats and my purpose in life is to assist them to have higher lives by enhancing their relationships with their caregivers, together with my furry youngsters Nina Maria and Shiloh (my beloved cat and canine).

Daniel: I’m a vet who has been working with downside animal behaviour for about 35 years now. I nonetheless see circumstances on the University of Lincoln, and lecture extensively on our MSc in Clinical Animal Behaviour; I additionally head up a big analysis group there, with analysis college students engaged on cats, canine and horses. I’m significantly fascinated by what makes a person distinctive and the way this arises from their interplay with the surroundings. This hyperlinks each my utilized and elementary analysis, for instance by inspecting how we and non-human animals recognise and reply to the emotional state of each other. More not too long ago I’ve had alternatives to scientifically discover my pursuits within the potential worth of {our relationships} with animals. My analysis on this space focuses on the advantages from pet preserving utilizing a multidisciplinary method, for instance collaborations with biologists, well being care professionals, psychologists, attorneys and economists.

Eve: I used to be a lecturer in Byzantine History however my life took a special flip once we misplaced Lola, our 2 yr outdated rescue cat, in a street visitors collision exterior our home. We developed an answer to maintain her brother, Leo, protected from the risks of free-roaming. I grew to become obsessed with stopping feline tragedies and preserving cats protected exterior, whereas enabling cat homeowners to expertise peace of thoughts.


At iCatCare, we respect the variety of the species and perceive the person cat. We are delighted to see one other device within the toolbox of how we handle out of doors entry for our cats that takes into consideration each cat welfare and proprietor concern as in the end, the 2 are so interlinked. If you’re contemplating what can be finest to your cat (indoors, unrestricted entry open air or a containment system) the next pages on our web site could assist.

Outdoor cats

Fencing in your garden

(If you have an interest in putting in a barrier system to your cat, then buying a Protectapet system through the hyperlink within the article above means Protectapet will donate 10% of the acquisition worth to iCatLook after our charitable work.)

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}div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note { font-size: 14px !necessary; }@media display screen and (max-width: 768px) { div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h1 { font-size: 30px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 18px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note { font-size: 14px !necessary; } }@media display screen and (max-width: 480px) { div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h1 { font-size: 25px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 16px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note, div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note * { font-size: 12px !necessary; } } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field::-webkit-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field:-ms-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field::placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field::-webkit-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field:-ms-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field::placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-container { margin: 0 10px 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-label { font-size: 16px; margin: 5px 0 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-category-label { font-size: 14px; margin: 5px 0 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax enter.mo-mailchimp-interest-choice { line-height: regular; border: 0; margin: 0 5px; } div#vHbBayqIax span.mo-mailchimp-choice-label { vertical-align: center; font-size: 14px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-choice-container { margin: 5px 0; }

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