Elderly Cats – Special Considerations

This article first appeared on iCatCare here.

Cats live for much longer now than was the case 20 years in the past, thanks to raised vitamin, veterinary and residential care. In current years, feline ages and life-stages have been redefined, cats are thought of to be aged as soon as they attain 11 years with senior cats outlined as these aged between 11-14 years and super-senior cats 15 years and upwards. When caring for older cats it generally helps to understand their age in human phrases.

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The components for calculating the equal age is pretty easy:

the primary two years of a cat’s life equate to 24 human years and yearly thereafter is equal to 4 human years. For instance, a 16-year-old cat can be equal to an 80-year-old human.

See our info on how to tell your cat’s age in human years.

The results of ageing

With rising age, there are a lot of adjustments to a cat’s physiology, behaviour and vulnerability to explicit diseases. Physiological adjustments embody diminished means to scent and style meals, diminished means to digest fats and protein, diminished listening to, immune perform, pores and skin elasticity and stress tolerance.

Behavioural adjustments

As cats age, their behaviour alters too, usually as a direct results of the physiological adjustments happening. The aged cat adapts steadily to those adjustments and it will not be obvious except you’re particularly searching for indicators of ageing. Older cats hunt much less, spend much less time outdoors, are typically much less lively and sleep for longer intervals. They can have a diminished or fussy urge for food, be much less eager to play or groom and be extra vocal. They additionally are inclined to develop into extra insecure and due to this fact doubtlessly extra depending on you.

Other behavioural adjustments might be seen as a direct results of illness, for instance, elevated thirst or urge for food or aggression related to ache.

Home look after the aged

This is the time, greater than every other, when your cat wants some important care. As cats become old they’ll discover it harder to keep up their very own cleanliness and checking your cat usually will allow you to detect issues that have to be tackled right away.

Claw trimming

For instance, examine your cat’s nails weekly. Elderly cats are much less capable of retract their claws they usually could get caught in furnishings and carpets. They also can overgrow and stick into their pads. Regular trimming can be vital and with the precise recommendation and coaching out of your veterinarian, it might be simple so that you can carry out this routine process and due to this fact keep away from the necessity for a doubtlessly traumatic journey to the surgical procedure.

Grooming

Your outdated cat is much less capable of groom effectively so you might have to wipe away any discharge round its eyes, nostril or anus utilizing separate items of cotton wool for every space moistened in heat water. You might also have to brush your cat utilizing a smooth brush and effective comb however care ought to be taken to make sure you are mild, as older cats are typically skinny with little or no padding over their bones so vigorous combing might be painful. At this time you may also examine for lumps, bumps, sores or anything that deserves consideration from the vet. Grooming shorthaired cats solely must be accomplished completely if there may be any matting. This can usually happen on the decrease backbone and hindquarters as your cat could also be much less versatile and due to this fact unable to achieve these areas to self-groom.

If your cat is longhaired and is having difficulties retaining itself clear it might be useful to trim the coat round its anus, underside of the tail and again legs to keep away from soiling or matting. If you discover any matts then they need to be teased out moderately than reduce with scissors as this could so simply injury the pores and skin. If you have got any considerations, seek the advice of your veterinarian as extreme matts might be very uncomfortable on your cat.

For extra info, see how to groom your cat

Hairballs

Hairballs are a standard drawback in older cats as they usually have sluggish digestions and hair ingested throughout grooming could trigger issues reminiscent of power vomiting or constipation. Special dietary supplements or meals might be bought to help with hairballs ought to this develop into an issue on your cat.

Toilet habits

Even in case your aged cat has entry outside it’s sensible to supply an indoor litter facility as there’ll inevitably come a time when your cat simply doesn’t really feel inclined to rest room in chilly, damp circumstances outdoors. If you present a litter tray you then have the chance to examine your cat’s elimination habits for blood within the urine or stools, change in consistency of stools or different indicators of illness.

See how to choose the right litter tray for your cat

Dental checks

Old enamel and mouths may cause issues so examine your cat usually for indicators of any growths, reddening of the gums or proof of dental illness. Halitosis (dangerous breath), drooling, a ‘chattering’ jaw, lack of urge for food and pawing on the mouth could all be indicators of dental illness, if doubtful, seek the advice of your veterinarian.

Regular well being checks

Your veterinarian will advise the frequency of well being checks that will finest fit your cat, taking into account its age and common well being. Although it’s good to know your cat can be usually examined it shouldn’t forestall you from being just a little extra vigilant at residence to identify the primary indicators that each one isn’t nicely. There are quite a lot of common warning indicators that benefit consideration out of your veterinarian, specifically:

  • Loss of urge for food
  • Weight loss
  • Drinking extra usually or consuming a bigger quantity per day
  • Stiffness, lameness or issue in leaping up
  • Lethargy
  • Lumps or bumps wherever on the physique
  • Balance issues
  • Toilet accidents or issue passing urine or faeces
  • Disorientation or misery
  • Uncharacteristic behaviour, reminiscent of hiding, aggression, extreme vocalisation

Encouraging urge for food

Your cat could have much less of an urge for food because it will get older as its sense of scent and style diminishes or there could also be events when your cat wants just a little encouragement. There are numerous methods which you could stimulate urge for food, for instance:

  • Offer meals little and infrequently – for instance 4 to 6 meals per day as a place to begin – and select a quiet space in order that your cat isn’t distracted by noise and exercise. Experiment with each acquainted and unfamiliar meals to tempt urge for food
  • Consider the kind of bowl used to supply meals: your cat could want a large, shallow bowl or one with a rim, for instance.
  • Offer meals at room temperature, gently warming meals to only beneath physique temperature can improve palatability
  • Experiment with the consistency of the meals supplied. Some aged cats, particularly these with dental issues, want smooth meals to lumps or dry biscuits. You may attempt including a small quantity of water to the meals and mashing with a fork
  • Raise the meals bowl onto a field, for instance, as this will supply extra snug consuming to a cat with osteoarthritis affecting the neck.
  • Avoid leaving uneaten moist meals out for greater than an hour and don’t be tempted to depart a spread of various meals out as this may be overwhelming.
  • Sitting together with your cat while speaking and stroking can improve urge for food, you might even wish to attempt hand feeding

Drinking

Elderly cats are extra susceptible to turning into dehydrated, particularly if affected by medical circumstances reminiscent of power kidney illness, so at all times ensure that a wide range of water bowls can be found within the residence in accessible areas away from the conventional locations the place meals is eaten. You could have to experiment with the kind of container, for instance, ceramic bowl, glass or consuming fountain and even the kind of water, reminiscent of faucet water, boiled water, filtered, spring and so on. It could even be useful so as to add a small quantity of water to your aged cat’s moist meals. Water bowls, like meals bowls, could also be extra comfortably utilized by the older cat for those who increase it off the bottom.

Elderly cat pleasant residence

All the suggestions for a cat friendly home will work as nicely for the aged with just a little modification. There is never the necessity to make drastic adjustments to the house to accommodate your cat because it will get older however small variations to the present cat assets could make a big distinction to the standard of life. If your cat is discovering stairs troublesome to barter, for instance, then it might be spending extended intervals on one stage, both up or downstairs. Ensuring that each one your cat’s wants are met on that one stage will keep away from any threat of being unable to entry vital assets.

In order to make exercise and motion generally simpler on your older cat, it is vital that it feels snug strolling. Laminate, tiled or wood floors might be slippery and outdated cats can develop into unstable on slippery surfaces making them much less inclined to be lively. Equally, carpet can catch in your cat’s claws that overgrow simply with out common stropping and stay protracted because the muscle mass weaken. Cut pile carpets are extra snug on your cat than loop pile so in case your flooring is the latter you may compromise by offering reduce pile runners all through the house to allow your cat to stroll in consolation. This can be the best floor on which to play, notably in case your cat likes to lie down within the course of.

Play

If your cat has a favorite toy there isn’t any cause to discard it as he will get older. The bigger toys might be helpful to encourage your aged cat to lie on its facet, seize the toy with the entrance paws and kick with the again legs. This provides nice train for stiff hind limbs and is a sort of play loved by many. The preferrred ‘kick toy’ is rectangular or cylindrical, between 6 and eight inches lengthy (15-20cm) and manufactured from a sturdy cloth reminiscent of drill cotton or towelling.

The cardboard field is an actual favorite for the cat however the precept might have adapting for the aged. Older cats could like the concept of investigating however lack the flexibleness to leap in and transfer round. Placing a big field on its facet with the opening dealing with your cat will allow it to stroll in and examine. Carrier baggage and paper baggage also can present alternatives for exploration, notably in the event that they crinkle, however handles ought to be eliminated to keep away from any accidents as cats can simply get them caught round their necks.

Scratching

Elderly cats are much less probably to make use of the tall exercise and scratching posts because the stropping motion on vertical surfaces can put a pressure on arthritic joints. Offering comparable horizontal surfaces can fulfill people who nonetheless get pleasure from scratching and the motion supplies vital train for the muscle mass of the forelimbs.

Look-outs

Cats like to view outside and most get pleasure from sitting on excessive windowsills however leaping up can show troublesome if not inconceivable for some aged cats, so provision ought to be made for straightforward entry as much as and down from these favorite look-outs. A collection of shallow steps supply the most effective answer, ramps can be utilized however comfortably provided that they’re angled to characterize a slight incline moderately than a steep slope.

Puzzle feeding

Your older cat could benefit from the problem of puzzle feeders nevertheless it’s vital to watch meals consumption to make sure that the additional effort doesn’t dissuade your cat from consuming. If that is the case, keep on with bowls which are positioned in your cat’s favoured spot.

Litter trays

Litter trays ought to usually be positioned nicely away from different assets, reminiscent of meals and water however for the very aged or these cats affected by cognitive dysfunction, it’s applicable for all its assets to be positioned in straightforward attain to keep away from confusion.

The trays ought to in all probability not be the coated selection as these might be troublesome to barter. Open trays with low sides are preferrred and they need to be firmly fastened to forestall them from being tipped up in case your cat is clumsy when utilizing a tray. Polythene litter liners ought to be prevented as they’ll catch in your cat’s claws and any indoor trays ought to be cleaned usually. If your cat is affected by a situation that causes elevated thirst and urination you might have to fill the tray to a depth exceeding the advice of 3cm – in all probability as a lot as 5cm in some instances. Trial and error are required as your cat could want a extra shallow litter that’s cleaned extra steadily.

Beds

Many favoured places for sleep are on raised surfaces, reminiscent of your mattress or a window sill, so it might develop into troublesome with time on your aged cat to entry these particular locations. The positioning of ramps, steps and platforms will allow it to achieve the realm in mild levels moderately than giving up as a consequence of stiffness or weak point within the joints.

If your cat makes use of your mattress, chair or couch you might want to present a thermal blanket that’s heat and washable. If your cat likes to sleep on window sills or different slender platforms it’s advisable to position a smooth padded object beneath to forestall harm as many older cats have impaired steadiness and will simply fall. Ideally, aged cats ought to be inspired to make use of safe or wider surfaces for sleep.

Private locations

Your cat wants to have the ability to have uninterrupted relaxation so any areas chosen ought to be stored accessible and new ones created if lack of mobility prevents your cat from utilizing these beforehand favoured.

Cat flaps

Some aged cats will cut back the frequency of excursions outdoors on account of issue negotiating the cat flap. It could also be useful to construct a step, inside and outdoors, to make it simpler to make use of however finally it’s virtually inevitable that the cat flap can be changed by escorted journeys into the backyard through the again door. When this happens, if no different cats within the family are utilizing the flap, it will be advisable to dam up or take away the flap to forestall invasion from different cats outdoors which might be distressing on your cat.

Garden

There are quite a lot of explanation why your cat could cease going outdoors because it will get older. A major affect is undoubtedly going to be the presence of different cats within the territory and a way that your cat is not capable of actively defend its patch. If you’ll be able to safe your backyard (for extra info see fencing in your garden) you may exclude different cats and comprise your personal cat inside the security of your personal property.

Holidays and celebrations

If your cat has at all times gone right into a cattery when you find yourself on vacation then there isn’t any explicit cause to alter the routine. However older cats don’t cope notably nicely with adjustments to their routine so there could come a time when your cat could want to remain at residence with somebody visiting, or staying over, to supply the required care. Ideally, the cat-sitter ought to be somebody with whom your cat is acquainted.

Older cats can discover events and common festivities at residence just a little overwhelming so you might discover your cat advantages from a safe and quiet place to retreat to, the place it has all the pieces it wants, whereas the exercise is occurring in one other a part of the home.

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sarahicatcare

I’m the feline behaviour specialist at feline charity ‘International Cat Care’. We are about participating, educating and empowering individuals all through the world to enhance the well being and welfare of cats by sharing recommendation, coaching and fervour.

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user-select: none; pointer-events: none; filter: url(“information:picture/svg+xml;utf9,#blur”); -webkit-filter: blur(10px); -ms-filter: blur(10px); -o-filter: blur(10px); filter: blur(10px); } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container h1 { font-size: 32px !vital; }div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 18px !vital; }div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note { font-size: 14px !vital; }@media display and (max-width: 768px) { div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h1 { font-size: 30px !vital; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 18px !vital; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note { font-size: 14px !vital; } }@media display and (max-width: 480px) { div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h1 { font-size: 25px !vital; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 16px !vital; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note, div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note * { font-size: 12px !vital; } } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field::-webkit-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !vital; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field:-ms-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !vital; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field::placeholder { shade: #555555 !vital; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field::-webkit-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !vital; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field:-ms-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !vital; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field::placeholder { shade: #555555 !vital; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-container { margin: 0 10px 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-label { font-size: 16px; margin: 5px 0 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-category-label { font-size: 14px; margin: 5px 0 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax enter.mo-mailchimp-interest-choice { line-height: regular; border: 0; margin: 0 5px; } div#vHbBayqIax span.mo-mailchimp-choice-label { vertical-align: center; font-size: 14px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-choice-container { margin: 5px 0; }

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