Difficult Cat Birth: When to Wait and When to Worry

Difficult Cat Birth: When to Wait and When to Worry

This article first appeared on iCatCare here.

While many authors imagine that issues in parturition (start) are uncommon within the cat, others really feel that with the development of selective breeding these issues have gotten extra widespread.

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The impact of this has been proven in a survey of over 700 breeding cats, which discovered that cats with extremes of conformation, resembling Siamese and Persians, skilled a lot increased ranges of dystocia (tough births), 10 per cent and seven.1 per cent of births being affected respectively, in comparison with solely 2.3 per cent of births being affected in cats with regular conformation. It is subsequently crucial that breeders are conscious of the main points of regular parturition in order that they will recognise an issue when it arises.

In being pregnant, the foetuses are spaced alongside every horn of the uterus. Each foetus is contained inside its personal membranes and has its personal placenta via which it derives nourishment. The uterus could also be thought-about as a muscular, sausage-shaped bag, able to contracting each round its diameter and alongside its size. To assist in its passage, every foetus is contained inside a reasonably powerful double-layered bag of foetal membranes, that are full of slippery fluid wherein the foetus floats. This serves as each safety and lubrication and supplies a distending, stretching and dilating pressure when the uterus relaxes in entrance of it and contracts behind it throughout the course of parturition.

Late being pregnant and premonitory indicators of parturition

In the cat being pregnant typically lasts for 63 to 65 days; nonetheless, it isn’t uncommon for some cats to hold a standard litter for both a shorter or longer time (vary 58 to 70 days).

The cat’s behaviour alters little till the ultimate week of the being pregnant. During that remaining week, the seek for essentially the most appropriate kittening mattress turns into the dominant issue. Cats needs to be confined from this time to permit for remark of labour.

Generally, two forms of temperament are seen in cats at kittening: the unbiased kind which can go to excessive lengths to find a darkish enclosed area effectively away from human contact, and the dependent kind which can go to equal lengths to hunt consolation within the presence of its proprietor and will effectively select the proprietor’s mattress as one of the best place for kittening.

The phases of parturition     

For the stages of birth see here.

Interrupted labour

So-called interrupted labour is widespread sufficient within the cat to be thought-about a standard prevalence. In this case, when a number of kittens have been born, the mom will stop straining and relaxation fairly fortunately, suckling these kittens already born. She will settle for foods and drinks and is in each means fully regular besides that it’s apparent from her dimension and form, and the presence of foetal motion, that there are nonetheless kittens ready to be born. Some moderately dependent cats will intentionally delay or interrupt labour if the proprietor has to exit. This resting stage could last as long as 24 and even 36 hours, after which straining recommences and the rest of the litter is born fairly usually and simply.

Abnormalities of labour – dystocia 

Dystocia (tough start) could be categorised as both maternal or foetal in origin, relying on whether or not it’s attributable to issues with the queen or kittens. Dystocia can be categorised in line with whether or not it arises from obstruction of the start canal or a practical deficiency of the uterine muscle.

Obstructive dystocia is attributable to disproportion between the dimensions of the kittens and the maternal start canal. Factors leading to an insufficient dimension of the maternal start canal could embrace issues of the maternal skeleton (healed pelvic fractures), the pelvic smooth tissues (extreme constipation), or the uterus itself (uterine torsion or rupture). Foetal causes of obstructive dystocia could end result from malpresentation, extreme foetal malformation (eg, hydrocephalus, Siamese-twins), foetal oversize or foetal demise.

Functional dystocia is normally termed inertia and could be both main or secondary. Primary inertia is by far the commonest reason behind dystocia in cats. It is seen when the uterus produces none, or solely weak, rare contractions and there’s a failure of expulsion of regular kittens via a standard start canal. Primary inertia could also be associated to emphasize, outdated age, weight problems, ailing well being or the administration of sure medicine. It has been prompt that very small or very massive litters could end result respectively in insufficient or extreme uterine distension, and that this will likely lead to main inertia. However, current work discovered no distinction between the litter dimension of cats with dystocia as a result of main inertia and the litter dimension of cats with dystocia for different causes. Primary inertia as a result of stress, additionally termed ‘hysterical inertia’,  is just not unusual, and is seen notably within the Oriental, Siamese and Burmese breeds. In this situation excessive apprehension throughout the first stage causes all progress to stop. The affected cat is markedly and vocally distressed, crying continually and demanding consideration. She could also be positively hysterical, and in such circumstances, speedy aid could also be obtained by means of tranquillisers. In an emergency, this is able to be administered by a veterinary surgeon by injection, but when the cat in query is thought to behave on this vogue, the breeder could also be outfitted with tablets which could be given by mouth at the beginning and will likely be equally efficient.

Abnormalities of the primary stage    

Abnormalities of the primary stage can embrace all types of main inertia, and occasional uncommon issues, resembling torsion or rupture of the uterus. These latter two circumstances can lead to main emergencies in late being pregnant or first stage labour. Torsion implies a twisting of the uterus, reducing off its blood provide, and making supply of the contained foetus or foetuses not possible. It additionally causes what is kind of clearly an acute emergency with a really ailing and shocked cat. Torsion is normally presumed to have occurred throughout leaping or some violent motion which imparts a swinging movement to the closely gravid uterus. Rupture is extra normally the results of an unintended blow from a automobile or different violent trauma, or can happen from violent straining upon a whole obstruction. A rupture occurring on the time of parturition will give rise to the identical indicators of acute emergency as a torsion. It has been identified for rupture to happen early in being pregnant and for the foetus(es) to proceed to develop outdoors the uterus within the maternal stomach cavity. In these circumstances, the placenta turns into hooked up to one of many stomach organs however it’s uncommon for such foetuses to develop to full time period and, in fact, not possible for them to be born with out an stomach operation.

Abnormalities of the second stage   

Secondary inertia arises after extended second-stage labour, and could also be related to obstructive dystocia, muscle fatigue, or extreme ache. Obstructive dystocia could happen for a lot of causes, however in all probability the commonest causes are maternal pelvic malformation following a pelvic fracture, and foetal malpresentation/malposition/malposture. Interrupted labour, as already described, is unquestionably not an inertia, because the cat is manifestly regular, labour recommences usually, and kittens are born alive and regular. An necessary level of distinction between the 2 is that secondary inertia follows earlier issue or delay and the cat is usually stressed and exhausted.

Foetal malpresentations, malpositions and malpostures could all result in dystocia. Presentation signifies which means around the foetus is coming (ie, head or tail first), place signifies which means up it’s (ie, rotated or unrotated) and posture signifies the inserting of the pinnacle and limbs (ie, prolonged or flexed). Some individuals imagine that foetal malpresentation in cats not often causes dystocia, besides when mixed with different issues resembling poor cervical rest or relative foetal oversize. However, others have discovered foetal malpresentation to be the commonest reason behind dystocia of foetal origin, whereas relative foetal oversize was very uncommon.


Posteriorly introduced, or tail-first, kittens happen fairly often, a lot in order that this might virtually be thought-about a standard presentation, typically inflicting no delay in start. If, nonetheless, the primary kitten comes tail-first there could be delay owing to the absence of the wedge-shaped head pushing behind the fluid-filled membranes. The kitten is normally handed finally. However, it does have an elevated threat of drowning in its personal foetal fluids if the time from placental separation to when its nostril is free from its membranes is just too extended.


Malposition normally happens when a kitten has died in utero previous to rotation. It is unusual besides in circumstances of sickness, an infection or extended delay in a late-coming foetus. The presence of a lifeless foetus throughout the maternal pelvic canal can, in itself, lead to practical or obstructive dystocia.


Malposture is of most significance in relation to the place of the pinnacle. Brachycephalic cats could have issue on the level the place the foetal head first engages the opening of the maternal pelvis. The lack of a wedge-shaped muzzle will increase the chance of the pinnacle changing into deflected to at least one aspect, downwards between the forelegs, or onto the chest. Occasionally, one or each forelegs could lie again alongside the physique, and in posterior or tail-first presentation one or each hind legs could also be retained forwards alongside the physique to provide the breech posture. All of those conditions could give rise to both a brief delay and necessitate further efforts by the cat or, at worst, lead to full obstruction.

Inhibitory behaviour

A late manifestation of inhibitory hysterical behaviour could trigger delay when the kitten is already via the maternal pelvis and protruding via the vulva. This could trigger some ache, so at this level, the cat seems to surrender attempting and waits for, or calls for, assist. If this isn’t instantly forthcoming, the actual kitten concerned could die, particularly whether it is coming tail first.


The above was a moderately daunting, however not at all exhaustive, record of what can, however not often does, go mistaken. Breeders or house owners could need to know what could be performed to recognise hassle early and the way it may be averted or overcome.

It can’t be too firmly pressured {that a} regular cat wants no intervention. The good midwife is actually a very good and unobtrusive observer till hassle happens. Midwives ought to have offered, so far as attainable, the perfect kittening mattress which needs to be heat, comfy and secure, however must also be observable, ie, a cheerful medium between confinement and relative freedom throughout the confined space. During the primary stage of labour, they could want to offer both ethical help or stay unobtrusive as dictated by occasions. They ought to have at their fingertips a historical past of any earlier births by the cat in query and, if attainable, info regarding earlier generations and associated animals. They ought to have noticed the adjustments throughout being pregnant and pay attention to the diploma of stomach distension, quantity of fluid, and maybe have a tough concept of the variety of kittens to be anticipated. They ought to have been on the lookout for behavioural adjustments within the queen, resembling nest-making or visits to such fascinating spots as within the proprietor’s mattress or within the airing cabinet. Facilities for assist or examination needs to be at hand if wanted (handy desk, entry to operating heat water, cleaning soap and towel). An inner examination is resented by most unsedated cats and shouldn’t be undertaken by the unskilled. If issues are anticipated the veterinary surgeon ought to have been alerted and given the possible parturition date earlier than the occasion and knowledgeable of the beginning of labour in order that if a name for assist turns into obligatory it’s anticipated and could be promptly answered.


Apart from the worth of observations and data of the behaviour of the cat, breeders can, and in some circumstances should, be chargeable for the remedy of some parturition issues. The secret, if there’s one, of the popularity of hassle lies primarily within the recognition of delay. The hysterical dependent cat is apparent sufficient and straightforward sufficient to take care of, offered the required tranquilliser is at hand. Identification of delays later in the midst of kittening will once more contain remark of behaviour. In the case of the conventional interrupted labour, will probably be evident that the cat is in no misery, has a standard urge for food and is completely proud of the kittens already born. Straining in the midst of a standard parturition, whereas it could or will not be vigorous, is clearly productive in transferring the kitten alongside and doesn’t seem to provide rise to ache. Obstruction, alternatively, exhibits as a cat that strains with out producing any outcomes, could pant, cry, or seem exhausted, is stressed and unsettled, and at last desists in an try to get better enough power for an additional, though decreased effort. This is the cat that requires assist.

Feeling from the surface across the perineal space below the tail will point out if a kitten is already via the pelvis, and a view of nostril or toes and tail on the vulva signifies that start should be imminent if the kitten is to dwell. If no progress is being made and the kitten is clearly seen, it’s as much as the breeder to provide speedy assist since, except the veterinary surgeon actually lives on the premises, veterinary assist could not arrive in time for that specific kitten. If nothing could be felt on the vulva and the hold-up is evidently additional ahead, then it’s time to ship for skilled assist.

Diagnosis and remedy of the intense dystocia should be within the arms of the veterinary surgeon. Because of the small dimension of the cat, manipulative correction of malpostures from throughout the vagina is never attainable and is, in any case, a job for expert arms. To compensate for this, manipulation from outdoors the stomach can typically appropriate a malposture resembling a laterally deflected head; once more skilled talent is required. Often, in any actual hold-up, a Caesarian operation is the popular methodology and offered that the cat is neither desperately ailing nor very exhausted, it’s a secure and routine process. Present-day strategies of anaesthesia are a lot much less prone to depress respiration within the kitten than was as soon as the case, and even in main crises the cat’s potential to outlive an acute stomach emergency is exceedingly good and surgical procedure is all the time worthwhile.

The case the place the breeder has to assist is that of the cat who offers up attempting with a kitten hanging visibly from her vulva. If it’s coming head first, the primary urgency is to clear the membranes away from its nostril and mouth to permit respiration to happen. The kitten should then be eased gently out, alternating the course of traction, first liberating one aspect then the opposite, and all the time directing the pull barely downwards. Since kittens are slippery and moist at start, clear items of towelling or smooth paper towels could assist to get a grip. If the kitten has solely the tail and hind-legs displaying, supply is much more pressing and the issue of holding the slippery topic harder, however the identical precept applies. Hold the hind-legs above the hocks, ease gently to alternate sides, and if progress is just not made with the help of a pressure or two on the cat’s half, attempt mild rotation via a couple of levels earlier than persevering with the easing-out course of alternating the course of pull. Pull and traction are in all probability deceptive phrases to make use of right here to convey the sensitivity required to co-operate with the cat as she strains and rests momentarily in between, in order that progress continues with out worry of harm to cat or kitten. Make haste slowly. Immediately the kitten is out, clear the mouth and nostril of all membranes and fluid.

Methods of kitten revival

The regular mom cat will typically make a a lot better job of cleansing and drying her kittens than any human, so don’t intervene except obligatory. If, nonetheless, a kitten has needed to be helped out and isn’t respiration, or on these few events when the maternal intuition seems to be missing and the kitten is ignored, reviving it turns into a matter of urgency. Observation of the cat’s personal strategies present the order wherein to mimic them to one of the best benefit. The cat’s first act is to see that the kitten’s nostril and mouth are clear. Next, with a nipping/licking motion the cat picks up, then chews via, the umbilical wire and within the course of supplies a stimulation to the stomach navel space, getting respiration going. If this isn’t enough, a vigorous licking therapeutic massage of this space follows. Finally, a extra common drying lick and a few consideration to the posterior a part of the stomach and anal space is given to start out the bowel and bladder motion going. Then, whether it is wanted, a nudge in direction of the maternal nipples. The human imitation can observe a lot the identical plan with additions in an actual emergency.

  • Tear the membranes from the nostril, wipe the nostril and open the mouth, tilt the kitten head down and clear away any fluid.
  • If the wire has not damaged on supply, tear it a very good inch from the kitten and take away the membranes. Complicated reducing and tying of the wire usually are not obligatory. The cat would chew it via, offering a blunt crushing motion to stop bleeding; tearing it between the primary two fingers and thumb does a lot the identical factor. The kitten needs to be supported and the wire held on the kitten finish in order that the chance of pulling on the kitten is minimised.
  • If the kitten is just not respiration and clearly vigorous, or if it has come tail first and probably inhaled fluid, it’s essential to clear particles and fluid from the air passages. If mild suction tools is out there this may be performed by sucking particles out of the airway. This can be achieved utilizing a Jackson cat urinary catheter hooked up to a 5-10ml syringe. This can be used to induce the kitten to sneeze and cough by stimulating its nostril/throat. One of the historically used strategies includes swinging the kitten. To do that, place the kitten within the palm of the hand, its again in direction of the palm and neck between forefinger and third finger, its head protruding between the fingers. Enclose the kitten within the fingers and, turning the hand palm downwards with the arm prolonged, give a really mild swing; make fairly certain first that you’re not too close to the desk or different protruding edge or catastrophe will observe. The swing could have the impact of forcing fluids out of the air passages and an additional wipe of nostril and mouth will clear it away. The swing will even serve to stimulate respiration. Take care; if carried out too vigorously this methodology can lead to mind haemorrhage.
  • •  The subsequent transfer imitates the licking of the stomach wall and stimulates respiration. It includes a stroking, rubbing motion with a clear towel. Assuming that the kitten is by now displaying common respiration, this may be adopted by a brisk common rub dry. If the kitten is just not is just not respiration, some type of synthetic respiration could also be obligatory. Mouth-to-mouth respiration could be helpful, however provided that very rigorously carried out. There are a number of important factors to recollect. It is not any use blowing fluids and particles additional down; these should be cleared away first (see above). Secondly, the capability of kitten lungs in comparison with the human is minute. Blow very gently and permit a pause for expiration. Repeat this cycle each three to 5 seconds. Breathing into the kitten’s airway via a small endotracheal tube or consuming straw could assist to scale back the chance of over-inflating the kitten’s lungs, and be extra hygienic than direct mouth-to-mouth. Various different strategies have been used to make the new-born animal gasp. Among these could also be listed brandy or different spirits transferred through a fingertip to the tongue, flicking the chest sharply however gently with a fingertip, and alternate cold and warm water purposes.

While a few of these strategies may go, a extra dependable remedy is the applying of a drop of doxapram to the underside of the kitten’s tongue. If unsure stick with stimulating the kitten; some can nonetheless be revived over 30 minutes from start. That stated, the longer the period earlier than respiration, the upper the chance of hypoxia inflicting mind injury or blindness.


Warmth is a main important for the new child. The kitten can’t react to chilly by shivering and can’t management its personal physique temperature. Normally, heat could be obtained by direct physique contact with the mom and conserved by the maternal selection of an enclosed kittening mattress. The first level to recollect if assistance is required is {that a} new child moist kitten loses warmth very quickly, therefore the brisk rub dry. Follow this, if the mom is ailing or not co-operative, by contact with a heat, well-covered sizzling water bottle and preserve warmth with a masking blanket. Great care should be taken to not inflict contact burns by having the bottle too sizzling. An acceptable different is an infra-red lamp extensively used for pigs and puppies and readily obtainable. Its disadvantages are that many cats dislike the open mattress required for its use and that it could make each mom and kittens too sizzling and reduce the shut regular nursing contact between cat and kittens.

The significance of congenital defects  

Congenital defects which can be apparent on the time of start, and could also be concerned in dystocia, embrace:

  • Severe hydrocephalus with marked cranium enlargement
  • Anasarca or generalised oedema (waterlogging of the tissues)
  • Spina bifida or incomplete improvement of the dorsal physique wall
  • Hernia or incomplete improvement of the ventral physique wall
  • Gross deformity or absence of limbs

Many critical inherited abnormalities usually are not apparent at start and abnormalities of the eyes, listening to and coronary heart fall into this class. Suspected abnormalities of joints and limbs needs to be considered with warning except completely self-evident resembling extreme shortening of a limb. Joints at start are very incomplete constructions and most obvious ‘double-jointedness’ or rotation of limbs proper themselves by the point the kitten is de facto changing into cell. The most tough resolution normally issues the kitten persistently rejected by its mom, regardless of its obvious normality. The selection, on this case, lies between hand rearing, fostering or destruction, and on this connection, it needs to be remembered that the fully hand-reared kitten will likely be at an obstacle in its behavioural responses to its personal species. The resolution can solely be made by the breeder after full consideration of the circumstances. An further consideration is that the rejected kitten could be a faulty kitten (‘mom could know greatest’) wherein case hand rearing won’t achieve success.

Post-kittening or puerperal problems

Retention of foetal membranes

Occasionally a cat could fail to go the ultimate set of foetal membranes after parturition seems to be full. She will in all probability present some indicators of restlessness and of stomach discomfort and could also be unwilling to settle together with her kittens throughout the 24-72 hours after parturition. Her urge for food will in all probability be poor and a brownish vaginal discharge could also be seen. Examination will present a raised temperature and palpation via the stomach wall will disclose a thickened lumpy space of womb containing the membranes. Broad-spectrum antibiotic cowl is important and prostaglandin F2-alpha could assist to induce expulsion of the retained membranes. If this fails, an emergency ovariohysterectomy (spay) could also be required.


Metritis (irritation of the uterus) happens sometimes, normally inside three days of parturition. The cat is rather more clearly ailing than with easy retention of foetal membranes. She will likely be boring and torpid, ignore her kittens, refuse meals, grow to be polydipsic, and will vomit. A purulent, foul-smelling vaginal discharge is current together with fever. Abdominal palpation could trigger the queen ache and the uterus normally feels thickened. Antibiotics ought to ideally be chosen in line with tradition and sensitivity. However, first-line remedy normally consists of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, eg, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, or a cephalosporin. If this fails, an emergency ovariohysterectomy (spay) could also be required.

Uterine issues

Uterine prolapse describes the telescoping of the uterus which then protrudes from the vulva. It happens not often, the place it’s seen as an acute post-parturient emergency. The look of the invaginated uterus on the vulva is self-evident. Initially, the cat is seen to be straining and uncomfortable regardless of the completion of parturition. If remedy is delayed the cat will quickly grow to be boring, shocked and torpid, in an analogous method to the animal with a uterine rupture. Uterine prolapse constitutes an emergency requiring speedy medical help and surgical intervention.


Mastitis (irritation of the mammary glands), as an acute suppurative type, generally happens throughout early lactation. It is normally confined to at least one gland and will observe a easy congestion or overstocking. The affected gland will likely be tense, sizzling, painful and enlarged. If it is just congested, the applying of warmth and subsequent mild therapeutic massage will deliver regular milk out of the teat orifice, and the scenario could also be speedily relieved by milking the gland involved. If an abscess is current, the cat will grow to be anorexic, boring and feverish, and along with ache and swelling within the gland, a pointing, or purplish space of fluid strain from the buildup of pus will likely be seen. Antibiotics are important. While, ideally, they need to be chosen in line with tradition and sensitivity, first-line remedy normally consists of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, eg, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, or a cephalosporin.

Lactation tetany

Lactation tetany might, in concept, happen throughout, or at any time after, parturition. Early circumstances are well-known within the bitch. However, within the cat, most circumstances have been recorded later in lactation, 17 days to eight weeks post-kittening being most common. While the exact causes of the situation usually are not identified, it includes a sudden drop within the quantity of calcium circulating within the bloodstream. It is undoubtedly linked with the calls for of milk manufacturing and the affected cat normally has a pretty big litter to suckle. The first indicators of the onset of the situation normally embrace lack of coordination and tetanic muscular spasms with later collapse and coma. Treatment by the intravenous injection of calcium preparations results in a spectacular reversal of the situation. A later subcutaneous injection could also be required to take care of the restoration. Kittens needs to be faraway from the cat if sufficiently old, in any other case, their numbers should be diminished or supplementary feeding given. Any affected cat ought to solely be allowed to rear a small variety of kittens at any subsequent litter. Lactation tetany typically happens after every kittening so this reality should be remembered when contemplating the advisability of breeding once more and taking prophylactic measures, or alternatively of neutering.


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I’m the feline behaviour specialist at feline charity ‘International Cat Care’. We are about participating, educating and empowering individuals all through the world to enhance the well being and welfare of cats by sharing recommendation, coaching and keenness.

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width: 100%; margin-right: 0; margin-top: 10px; } } html div#vHbBayqIax.mo-optin-has-custom-field div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.columbine-container div.columbine-column, html div#vHbBayqIax.mo-optin-has-custom-field div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.columbine-container div.columbine-two-col1, html div#vHbBayqIax.mo-optin-has-custom-field div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.columbine-container div.columbine-two-col2, html div#vHbBayqIax.mo-optin-has-custom-field div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.columbine-container div.columbine-three-col1, html div#vHbBayqIax.mo-optin-has-custom-field div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.columbine-container div.columbine-three-col2, html div#vHbBayqIax.mo-optin-has-custom-field div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.columbine-container div.columbine-three-col3 { float: none; width: 100%; margin-right: 0; margin-top: 10px; } html div#vHbBayqIax.mo-optin-has-custom-field div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.columbine-container div.columbine-column textarea.mo-optin-form-custom-field.textarea-field { min-height: 80px; }div#vHbBayqIax *, div#vHbBayqIax *:earlier than, div#vHbBayqIax *:after {box-sizing: border-box;-webkit-box-sizing: border-box;-moz-box-sizing: border-box;}div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field:focus {define:0}div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-submit-button:focus {define:0}div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container div.mo-optin-powered-by{margin:5px auto 2px;text-align:middle;}div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container div.mo-optin-powered-by a {font-size:16px !necessary; text-decoration: none !necessary;box-shadow:none !necessary;border-bottom-width:0px !necessary;cursor:pointer !necessary;}div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container .mo-acceptance-checkbox {background-color: #fff;line-height: 0;border: 1px stable #bbb;width: 16px;min-width: 16px;top: 16px;margin: 0 5px 0 0 !necessary;define: 0;text-align: middle;vertical-align: center;clear: none;cursor: pointer;}div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container .mo-acceptance-label {cursor:pointer}div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p {padding:0px !necessary;margin:0px !necessary;shade:inherit;}div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-wrapper label {shade:inherit;font-weight: regular;margin: 0;padding:0;}div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost enter[type=submit] {-webkit-appearance: none;}div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost_container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost enter {z-index: auto;}div#vHbBayqIax.mo-cta-button-flag .mo-optin-form-note .mo-acceptance-label {show:none;}div#vHbBayqIax .mailoptin-video-container { place: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%; top: 0; overflow: hidden; } div#vHbBayqIax .mailoptin-video-container iframe, div#vHbBayqIax .mailoptin-video-container object, div#vHbBayqIax .mailoptin-video-container embed, div#vHbBayqIax .mailoptin-video-container video { place: absolute; high: 0; left: 0; width: 100%; top: 100%; }html div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost.mo-optin-form-wrapper {max-width:100% !necessary}#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-spinner { border-radius: inherit; place: absolute; width: 100%; top: 100%; background: #fff url(https://katzenworld.co.uk/wp-content/plugins/mailoptin/src/core/src/property/photographs/spinner.gif) 50% 50% no-repeat; left: 0; high: 0; opacity: 0.99; filter: alpha(opacity=80); } #vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-success-close { font-size: 32px !necessary; font-family: “HelveticaNeue – Light”, “Helvetica Neue Light”, “Helvetica Neue”, Helvetica, Arial, “Lucida Grande”, sans-serif !necessary; shade: #282828 !necessary; font-weight: 300 !necessary; place: absolute !necessary; high: 0 !necessary; proper: 10px !necessary; background: none !necessary; text-decoration: none !necessary; width: auto !necessary; top: auto !necessary; show: block !necessary; line-height: 32px !necessary; padding: 0 !necessary; -moz-box-shadow: none !necessary; -webkit-box-shadow: none !necessary; box-shadow: none !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-success-msg { font-size: 21px; font-family: “HelveticaNeue – Light”, “Helvetica Neue Light”, “Helvetica Neue”, Helvetica, Arial, “Lucida Grande”, sans-serif; shade: #282828 !necessary; font-weight: 300; text-align: middle; margin: 0 auto; width: 100%; place: absolute !necessary; left: 50%; high: 50%; -webkit-transform: translate(-50%, -50%); -moz-transform: translate(-50%, -50%); -o-transform: translate(-50%, -50%); -ms-transform: translate(-50%, -50%); rework: translate(-50%, -50%); } #vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-success-msg a { shade: #0000EE; text-decoration: underline; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .list_subscription-field:not(choose), html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .checkbox-field, html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .radio-field, html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .select-field { margin-top: 6px; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .checkbox-field, html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .radio-field, html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .select-field { text-align: left; padding: 6px; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .checkbox-field label, html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .radio-field label { show: block; text-align: left; margin-top: 6px; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .checkbox-field label enter, html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .radio-field label enter { margin-right: 5px; vertical-align: center; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .select-field choose { width: 100%; } html div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .list_subscription-field:not(choose), html div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .mo-optin-form-custom-field.checkbox-field, html div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .mo-optin-form-custom-field.radio-field { padding: 0 !necessary; border: 0 !necessary; background: clear !necessary; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .list_subscription-field label { show: block !necessary; margin: 5px 0 !necessary; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .list_subscription-field label:last-child { margin: 0; } html div#vHbBayqIax .mo-optin-form-container .mo-optin-form-wrapper .mo-optin-fields-wrapper .list_subscription-field enter[type=checkbox] { cursor: pointer; } .mailoptin-content-lock { shade: clear!necessary; text-shadow: rgba(0,0,0,.5) 0 0 10px; -moz-user-select: none; -ms-user-select: none; user-select: none; pointer-events: none; filter: url(“knowledge:picture/svg+xml;utf9,#blur”); -webkit-filter: blur(10px); -ms-filter: blur(10px); -o-filter: blur(10px); filter: blur(10px); } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container h1 { font-size: 32px !necessary; }div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 18px !necessary; }div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note { font-size: 14px !necessary; }@media display and (max-width: 768px) { div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h1 { font-size: 30px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 18px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note { font-size: 14px !necessary; } }@media display and (max-width: 480px) { div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-headline, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h2, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost h1 { font-size: 25px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-description, div#vHbBayqIax div.mo-optin-form-container div#vHbBayqIax_inpost p { font-size: 16px !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note, div#vHbBayqIax div#vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-form-note * { font-size: 12px !necessary; } } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field::-webkit-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field:-ms-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-name-field::placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field::-webkit-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field:-ms-input-placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } #vHbBayqIax #vHbBayqIax_inpost .mo-optin-field.mo-optin-form-email-field::placeholder { shade: #555555 !necessary; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-container { margin: 0 10px 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-label { font-size: 16px; margin: 5px 0 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-category-label { font-size: 14px; margin: 5px 0 2px; } div#vHbBayqIax enter.mo-mailchimp-interest-choice { line-height: regular; border: 0; margin: 0 5px; } div#vHbBayqIax span.mo-mailchimp-choice-label { vertical-align: center; font-size: 14px; } div#vHbBayqIax .mo-mailchimp-interest-choice-container { margin: 5px 0; }

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